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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Date: Oct 28 2008

主題: 文法

作者: nad1a

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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES



As the name suggests, conditional sentences are those that describe a condition and a result that follows. In theory, they may seem a little abstract, but in truth, they are very common in daily conversations.


We may use them for real-life situations, as in:

"If you work hard, you succeed."

"If you work hard, you will get that promotion."



Or use them to describe unreal or imaginary situations:

"If I were rich, I would buy a house on the Bahamas." (but I am not rich.)

"If you had listened to my advice then, you would have been rich now." (but you did not listen)


__________________________________________________________________________________


For real situations we use the ZERO and FIRST CONDITIONALS:


ZERO CONDITIONAL:

- to describe a general, real situation to say what always or usually happens in a given situation;

- use the present tense in both the condition and the result-clause:

"If you work hard, you succeed."

"If it rains, we stay at home."

"If he is sick, his sister hands in his assignments."


FIRST CONDITIONAL:

- to talk about a probable or certain outcome in the future, or something we believe will happen if the condition is satisfied;

- use the present tense in the condition clause and future tense in the result clause:

"If you work hard, you will get that promotion."

"If it rains tomorrow, we will not go on a picnic."

"If he is still sick next week, his sister will hand in his assignment."



__________________________________________________________________________________


For unreal situations, we use the SECOND and THIRD CONDITIONALS:


SECOND CONDTITIONAL:

- (1) to give advice or make a suggestion; (2) to talk about what would happen in a situation which is not the case at present;

- use the past simple in the condition clause and would/could/should/might+infinitive in the result-clause:

"If I were you, I wouldn't disturb him"

"If we waited a little longer, we could meet the manager."

"If Mary knew about it, she would tell me."

"If you asked my brother, he would help you."



THIRD CONDITIONAL:

- to talk about what would have happened in a situation which was not the case in the past;

- use the past perfect in the conditional clause and would have/ could have /might have +past participle in the result-clause:

"If you had woken up early, you wouldn't have missed your flight."

"If he had studied harder, he would have passed his exams."

"If she had known, she would have told you."


__________________________________________________________________________________


OTHER WORDS WE CAN USE INSTEAD OF "IF"


WHEN

"When you get there, you will see her."

"I will come when you call me."


SHOULD

"Should you be unable to answer your calls, we will take your messages."

"Should you require additional information, do not hesitate to phone us."


UNLESS = if...not

"Unless you work hard, you can't succeed."

"Unless she leaves now, she'll be late for the meeting."

"Unless you gave him the facts, he couldn't know."

"Unless they had seen her, they wouldn't have been so angry."


PROVIDED (THAT)

"Provided (that) you know what you want, you can always find a way to get it."

"Provided (that) he passes the test, he will qualify for the finals."
"
Provided (that) she listened, she could hear the bells."

"Provided (that) he had had the money, he would have bought it."


SUPPOSING (THAT)

"Supposing (that) she comes to the party, what will you do?"

"Supposing (that) she won from the lottery, would she lend you any money?"

"Supposing (that) at she ahd seen you there, what would you have done?"

"Supposing (that) he asked you for a loan, what would you say?"


__________________________________________________________________________________


Notes:


(1)

In the second conditional, it is natural to use 'were' in stead of 'was' for all persons, similarly to what we do in other unreal past structures, such as the wish-clauses (I wish I were rich.)

"If I were you, ..."

"If he were ... , ... "


(2)

The if-clause/condition, can always come after the result-clause.

"Things change when you grow up."

"He will be promoted if he keeps working so hard."

"We would call them if they showed an interest."

"I wouldn't have done it if you had warned me."


--> Observe that in such sentences the clauses are not separated by a comma.


--> The should-clause does not normally come after the result-clause!

(Do not hesitate to call us should you require additional information.)


(3)

In the second and third conditionals, we can omit the word 'if' in the condition-clause and in that case we should invert the subject with the verb as we do in an interrogative sentence:


If I were you, I would call her. --------> Were I you, I would call her.

If I had known, I wouldn't have done it. ---------> Had I known, I wouldn't have done it.


--> In these cases, the result clause cannot come before the conditional clause.

(I wouldn't have done it had I known.)

(I would call her were I you.)


意見

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sarsminhtutaung

Myanmar

really love it

03:52 PM Dec 18 2008 |

sreenivas4488

India

Very good lesson.., I Like it

06:46 AM Dec 18 2008 |

galus

Cameroon

great lesson, hope it won't end there. plus the smile it was just enjoyable. congratulations !!!

12:50 PM Dec 16 2008 |

Darfoon

Sudan

very good , thanks alot

04:50 PM Dec 14 2008 |

leonlai

leonlai

China

This is lesson is very helpful to me.Thank you.Wink

05:52 AM Dec 12 2008 |

nguyenquangtin

Viet Nam

It's a good lesson ! Thank you.

09:32 AM Dec 11 2008 |

ozturkuludag

Turkey

i think so this is good guys..

 

02:44 PM Dec 10 2008 |

longmeiling0829

China

Very useful for me .Many thanks!

02:55 AM Dec 10 2008 |

ice1234

ice1234

India

thanx…....

07:12 PM Dec 09 2008 |

Ronnie450531

Taiwan

A great teacher you are and hoping to learn more from you

06:52 PM Dec 09 2008 |

Marcot

Marcot

Italy

Thanks Nad1a..

01:59 PM Dec 09 2008 |

OOAOOLOO

OOAOOLOO

Japan

i was having problem with this sort of expression..now i think i cleared it up now..very helpfull..thank uKiss

02:38 AM Dec 08 2008 |

Retaj

Retaj

Saudi Arabia

thx nada
i like u and ur lessons
bye

06:25 PM Dec 05 2008 |

zeinali

Iran, Islamic Republic Of

that was fantastic Nad1a 

06:42 PM Dec 04 2008 |

selenia23

selenia23

Spain

Great!! now i discovered why if i were rich,, is ok instead if i was u.

 

thank u!!

05:16 PM Dec 04 2008 |

der junge

der junge

Venezuela

thakn you very  much..!

02:39 PM Dec 03 2008 |

tracygirl

Netherlands

a great lesson, thanks for sharing it with us.

10:46 AM Dec 03 2008 |

tracygirl

Netherlands

great tutorial like all your lessons ,in fact

10:46 AM Dec 03 2008 |

nad1a

nad1a

Greece

"If I were you, I would be (I'd be ) ...."

 

Thank you guys so much. Happy you enjoyed the lesson.

 

09:27 AM Nov 26 2008 |

Cugbphoenix

China

If I was you, I'll be appraised like you did

03:13 AM Nov 26 2008 |

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